Impact Testing

Charpy Test, Izod Test & Drop Weight Methods

Charpy Impact TestingThe Charpy Test, Charpy V notch Test, Izod Test and other Impact Testing determine the toughness or impact strength of metallic material in the presence of a flaw or notch and fast loading conditions. This destructive test involves fracturing a notched impact test specimen and measuring the amount of energy absorbed by the material during fracture.

Laboratory Testing Inc. in the Philadelphia, PA (USA) area performs ASTM impact test methods and more, including:

  • Charpy Impact Test
    • Weld Charpy Test
    • Charpy V-notch Test
  • Izod Impact Test
  • Drop Weight Test

Our full-service Machine Shop can prepare your metal impact test specimens on the latest CNC equipment including the charpy V-notch test specimen. LTI’s impact testing lab is on NIST’s (National Institute of Standards and Technology) Qualified Manufacturers List for Charpy V-notch Impact verification specimens.

Test Methods/Specifications

  • ASTM A370
  • ASTM E23
  • ASTM E208
  • ISO 148

LTI Capabilities

Iron and all other body-centered cubic metals undergo a transition from ductile behavior at higher temperatures to brittle behavior at lower temperatures. Impact Testing of materials is required by many industries to evaluate the toughness of materials used in manufacturing products, including steel hull plate for ships, nuclear plant pressure vessels and forgings for electric power plant generator rotors.

  • Types of Testing:  charpy impact testing (including V notch charpy impact test), izod test, drop weight testing, weld testing
  • Temperatures:  -452ºF to 500ºF
  • Impact Energy:  up to 320 ft. lbs.
  • Specimen Machining:  prepare all izod and charpy test specimens; NIST approved for charpy V-notch test specimens

The Impact Test Processes

Izod and Charpy Testing

The Izod Test and Charpy Impact Test have similarities, but there are a few differences between the tests too. Both impact tests entail striking notched specimens with a swinging weight or pendulum at a series of temperatures to show the relationship of ductile to brittle transition in absorbed energy. Where they differ is in the dimensions of the specimens and the positioning of the specimens in the test machine.

Several machined bar specimens, sized at 1cm x 1cm x 5.5cm with a 2mm deep U-shaped notch at the middle of a specified flat surface, are required to perform the Charpy Test. The Charpy V-notch Test is very common and requires a specimen with a V-shaped notch. The notch on the ASTM Izod Impact test specimen is also V-shaped.

The impact specimens are tested at a series of specified temperatures (e.g. -20ºC, -10ºC, 0ºC, +10ºC, +20ºC) in the range of -452ºF to 500ºF. Low temperature charpy testing involves placing the specimens in a chamber bath of propylene glycol and dry ice until a calibrated thermocouple records the temperature required for the test.

Once a specimen reaches the precise temperature, it is quickly placed into a special holder in the test machine. The Charpy specimen is placed horizontally with the notch facing away from the pendulum or striker and is supported on two sides, while the Izod specimen is supported from one side and the notch is oriented vertically and toward the origin of impact.

The specimen is struck by a “tup” attached to the swinging pendulum of specific design and weight. The specimen breaks at its notched cross-section upon impact, and the upward swing of the pendulum is used to determine the amount of energy absorbed (notch toughness) in the process. Energy absorption is directly related to the brittleness of the material.

Watch the process in the Charpy Impact Test Video below.

Drop Weight Test

The drop weight test method subjects each beam specimen in a group at a progression of temperatures to a single impact load from a guided free-falling weight dropped in a vertical direction. The drop weight test determines the maximum temperature at which a specimen breaks or the temperature at which the fracture mode of the steel changes from ductile to brittle (Nil-ductility transition or NDT temperature). The initial test is conducted at a temperature estimated to be near the NDT temperature. The remaining specimens are then tested at a progression of temperature intervals to determine the break and no-break performance temperatures within 10°F or (5°C).

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